3

   
 

Pulmonary tuberculosis
Nonspecific symptoms, such as chronic cough, fever, night sweats, anorexia and weight loss. In the older children also productive cough and haemoptysis. History of.contact with adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. No response to standard broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment.

Chest radiograph of a 4-year-old child with pulmonary tuberbulosis shows infiltration at right lower lung. His sputum smear was positive for acid-fast bacilli. The clinical manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis include chronic cough, fever, night sweats, anorexia and weight loss.

 

 

In the older children may also have productive cough and haemoptysis.

Although children with HIV infection have an increased incidence of tuberculosis disease, the clinical manifestations and radiographic appearance of pulmonary tuberculosis disease in children with mild to moderate immune suppression tend to be similar to those in immunocompetent children. Therapy should be the same as in immunocompetent children, except that rifampin may be used with caution in children who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

BAL smear is positive for acid-fast bacilli
   
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